Salisbury Chocolate Shop

Chocolate Glossary of Terms

Alkalisation
A process of neutralising the acidity of cocoa before roasting, invented In the early 19th century. Another technical term for alkalisation still used today is the ‘Dutch process’ or ‘Dutching’.

Bittersweet
A general American term for sweetened dark chocolate with a minimum of 35% cocoa solids.

Cabosse
The pod like fruit of the cocoa tree.

Cacao
A common name for Theobroma cacao, the cocoa tree. Another name for cocoa and the cocoa pods, the fruit (cabosse).

Chocolate Liquor
Chocolate liquor is produced from the grinding of the cocoa nib. This is technically not yet chocolate. This type of chocolate is also known as cocoa mass, cocoa solid or cocoa liquor.

Cocoa Beans
Seeds contained inside the pod like fruit (cabosse) of the Theobroma tree. Can only be found growing in the “cocoa belt” 20 degrees north and south of the equator.

Cocoa Belt
A term describing the area 20 degrees North and South of the equator where cocoa is found to grow.

Cocoa Nib
The remaining part of the cocoa bean, often referred to as the kernel, once the husk has been removed after roasting.

Cocoa Butter
Cocoa butter is a natural fat that is present in cocoa beans. It is extracted from the “chocolate liquor." Often added back at a later stage in varying amounts depending on the form of chocolate. Also often used in cosmetics.

Cocoa Mass
Same as Chocolate Liquor.

Cocoa Solids
Same as Chocolate Liquor.

Cocoa Pods
Cabosse. A pod like fruit produced by the Theobroma cocoa tree mostly formed on the trunk and the largest branches. Each fruit contains between 30 and 40 cocoa beans of about 1 cm in length.

Cocoa Powder
The result of extracting cocoa butter from cocoa solid. Produces a very bitter cocoa powder with no added sugar. Cocoa powder is used in the making of deserts, baking and chocolate finishes.

Conching
The process where the chocolate is repeatedly rolled and mixed in large vats called conchs. The chocolate is kept at a stable temperature. The process removes moisture, unpleasant odours, acidity and enables complete emulsion of the cocoa butter into the cocoa paste. The result is a velvety smooth chocolate with no grittiness.

Couverture
Couverture (meaning to cover/coat) is a term used to describe professional-quality coating chocolate with a high percentage of cocoa butter. The extra cocoa butter is easier to work with and it allows the chocolate to form a thinner coating shell than non-couverture chocolate.

Chocolatier
A chocolate maker.

Drinking Chocolate
A sweetened cocoa powder used to make hot milky drinks.

Dutching
A process of neutralizing the acidity of cocoa before roasting, invented In the early 19th century. Another technical term for alkalization still used today is the ‘Dutch process’ or ‘Dutching’.

Enrobing
Covering a chocolate, or intended centre of a chocolate, with a layer of liquid chocolate.

Fat Bloom
The result of inadequate tempering or when the chocolate has been subjected to high temperatures making the chocolate sweat. Visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate and visual defect only. The chocolate is perfectly fine to eat.

Fondant
A mixture of sugar and water and used in the production of confectionery. Can also be a covering paste, made with sugar icing. Also a name for dark chocolate.

Ganache
A Ganache is created from a mixture of chocolate, cream and/or butter. Often used as a centre for chocolates and the main ingredient of a truffle.

Gianduja
Gianduja is created from a blend of finely ground hazelnuts and chocolate. An Italian specialty.

Lecithin
A natural product extracted from the soybean that is used as a thinner in chocolate. During the manufacturing of chocolate, lecithin increases the chocolates fluidity through the reduction of viscosity. Cocoa butter is also used to increase fluidity in chocolate.

Maltitol
Maltitol is a natural sugar-substitute based on a Malt-extract, which allows chocolate to keep a sweet taste without containing sugar. Maltitol has become the most popular alternative sweetener due to its lack of aftertaste and lower calorie count compared to artificial sweeteners.

Marzipan
Marzipan is created from a mixture of melted sugar with finely chopped ground almonds.

Molinillo
A traditional wooden stick with rings attached to the bottom used to whip chocolate drinks to create a foam.

Moulding
Placing chocolate in moulds to obtain a moulded chocolate "shell" that is then filled with one or several unique fillings before being sealed with another layer of chocolate.

Nougatine
Created from a mixture of caramelised sugar and finely ground almonds or hazelnuts.

Pâte de Fruits
Pates de fruits are composed of sugar pulps and apple pectin. The fruit percentage is more than 50% of the total component.

Praliné
A chocolate predominately created with caramelised sugar, roasted and finely ground hazelnuts or almonds.

Semisweet
A general American term for sweetened dark chocolate with a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Same as Bittersweet.

Single Estate Chocolate
A chocolate created using the cocoa beans from one particular estate. This can either be a blend or single variety of cocoa. This would also be classed as single origin.

Single Origin Chocolate
A chocolate created from cocoa from one particular area or region. This can either be a blend or single variety of cocoa.

Single Variety Chocolate
A chocolate created from a single variety of cocoa.

Sugar Bloom
Visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate. Sugar bloom is the result of surface moisture dissolving sugar in the chocolate and subsequent re-crystallisation of the sugar on the chocolate surface. Typically caused by cold chocolate being exposed to a warm humid environment. A visual defect only. The chocolate is fine to eat.

Tempering
Tempering is the succession of heating and cooling the chocolate to obtain crystallisation. Crystallisation is when the cocoa butter solidifies to produce a smooth glossy finished chocolate. If not tempered properly the finished chocolate will be dull and streaky with a tendency to bloom.

Theobroma
The botanical description for cocoa. The name "Theobroma," comes from the ancient Greek words for "god" (Theo) and "food" (Broma).

Truffle
A chocolate made up of ganache, often shaped into balls and dusted with cocoa. Different truffle textures are created by rolling the centre ganache in cocoa powder, chocolate pieces, or finely chopped nuts. Truffles are named after the expensive French mushroom because of its visual resemblance.

Xocoatl
Xocoatl is the original name the Aztecs, Toltecs, Mayas and Incas gave to a stimulating drink they brewed from cocoa beans. It was a mixture of cocoa, maize (Indian corn) and water.

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